I realize the strong shoulders of the 1940s decade is an intimidating turnoff for many, but I embrace them in all their forms. For whether they are obnoxious or poufy as they can be or just plain sharply tailored, I see the 40’s strong shoulder line as not only a crucial part of the fashion in, before, and after the WWII decade, but also a very interesting garment point often neglected. Such can be as fun to perfect as they are even more entertaining to see and construct in all its differing varieties.
A strong, exaggerated shoulder line can do wonders for certain body shapes, as I think it does for mine. Although I am border line petite (just over 5 feet tall), I do not feel that my waist and hips are small enough in proportion to the rest of me, so the appearance of wider shoulders creates an illusion of the ideal body lines (tiny hips and waist). This is nothing new…I am just copying off of what worked for the famous actress Joan Crawford, when the equally famous Adrian used this same “trick” as what had been done in the 1830s and 1890s to distract the public eye away from conceived body faults about the midsection and create a certain image. As famous as well-known as both those names are, they had figured out something spot on that we who are in no manner Hollywood sweethearts can still imitate to our advantage. From a fascination of Crawford’s high, dramatic hairstyles to my amazement for Adrian’s penchant of precise pin striped garments, from the basic need for warm winter wear to the desire for an unusual item to try and sew, I have combined it all to end up with something that is an unexpected way to power through the cold!
This jumper dress was made for a recent trip to visit the historic garment district in Kansas City, Missouri for the exhibit “Suited Up: Tailored Menswear, 1900 to 2017”. This section of town is claimed to have been (at one time), second only to New York in breadth of territory! This cozy outfit let me be a wintertime tourist in handmade, menswear-inspired style! My shoes were very comfy for all day walking – they are Chelsea Crew brand “Gala” heels, reproduction vintage spectators. My blouse underneath is a resale store item, but my jewelry is true vintage from my Grandmother. I realize that all put together like I am, this is a more obviously vintage outfit than most other dated fashions that I make and wear, but I’d like to think that it is a statement enough to be attractive in its own way. I believe the general public that only relies on RTW is so ready for fashion to be something more appealing to them personally other than what is out there.
FABRIC: a heathered brown pure wool with an ivory pin striping
PATTERN: Simplicity #1238, year 1944, a jumper-dress
NOTIONS: The main notion used – the numerous buttons down the front – are a prized vintage card authentic to the 1940’s which had been found at our favorite local antique store. The rest of what I needed – the thread, interfacing, bias and hem tapes, as well as shoulder pads – are modern notions and were already in my stash of supplies.
TIME TO COMPLETE: This was made in about 25 to 30 hours…I took my time to get details done just the way I wanted them! It was finished on February 9, 2018.
THE INSIDES: As this was pure wool, it was therefore rather a rather itchy fabric which would fray a lot at every raw edge. Thus every seam was finished off with bias tape, with the hem covered in a lace tape for a fun and feminine finish!
TOTAL COST: This wool was a gem of a fabric I found in my local Jo Ann’s Fabric store. I don’t remember what the cost was purely because this kind of fabric is so lovely and hard to come by in brick-and-mortar stores here, so I had to have it regardless of cost. Nevertheless, I had a discount coupon and 40’s patterns do not need a whole lot of fabric, so – for just over 2 yards I think I spent under $30.
Ah – Adrian and Crawford…one would not be as famous without the other, but I suggest Adrian owed more to Crawford than the other way around. Crawford had been in movies since the 1920’s, but her broad shoulders served her well in the boyish and hip hugging fashions of the era – she was the right body for the mode of dressing then. When the 1930’s came along and Crawford was starring in movies where she played as a softer, sexier and wildly talented woman, she needed a signature style to match in Hollywood. In 1932, Crawford wore a dress designed by Gilbert Adrian know as the famous “Letty Lynton Dress”, a white organdie dress with big puffed sleeves which were covered in ruffles, to make her look feminine and demure. It is often credited with being the first movie fashion to be widely copied and sold for the public. Crawford’s wide shouldered dress gave the impression of a tiny waist and slim hips, and the illusion created by Adrian was suddenly in steady demand with popular fashion whether that garment was in a store, from a sewing pattern, created by a tailor, or from other designers. This would last strongly through the 1940’s, recurring again in the 1980s, when heavily padded and extreme shoulders were common. Crawford’s movie roles in the 40’s became harder, stronger, and frequently troubled, and so her large shoulder signature style stayed with her but changed to match until after Dior’s “New Look” styles became the craze.
In Adrian’s own story from the book, Creating the Illusion, he said that Crawford insisted on full freedom of movement with her arms, so much so that he had to leave excess fabric which was then padded to not appear sloppy. I do notice that many 1940’s era vintage patterns leave extra room in the shoulders, and I regard that as room you need for shoulder pads! But whether the use of padding came from Crawford’s fit preferences or Adrian’s direct styling for her body, between the two of them it is a silhouette and a technique that was influential and unmistakable. Crawford was Adrian’s perfect outlet to manifest the genius of his talent. It took the perfect actress in the perfect outfit to make the world notice her clothes to a point that the world how the copy that fashion for themselves. Unlike today, the designers were something to think about afterwards, as the Academy Awards for Best Costume Design wasn’t started until 1948. Adrian designed the costumes for Joan Crawford in more than twenty-eight movies. Granted, he did wonders designing spectacular, mind blowing outfits for other actresses, but it is how Joan Crawford wore what he made that had a outreaching effect that is still being discussed and understood today.
Now, the original design for this jumper-dress on the envelope cover is much more understated than how mine turned out and I wanted it this way! Since I was wearing this to see an exhibit on menswear, I wanted something strong and broad as the famous London-cut padded suit for guys of the early 40’s with a hint of the outspoken Zoot Suits. Adrian himself was a perfectionist at suits and loved to show the height of his ability by having stripes show off the seam lines (see this 1948 suit at the New York MET museum for only one example). Following these trains of thought, I also was tempted to add a welt pocket on the chest like a true suit, but as you can see I thought otherwise in the end. I do love how my jumper dress ends up having a double collar, as I wear the shirt underneath on top of the jumper lapels to cover the wool and keep it from itching my neck. This is better than a man’s vintage suit which doesn’t have this double collar benefit! Sewing it was much easier than making a complete suit but has all the same feel as one in a dress version.
I have seen such a unique kind of clothing as a jumper-dress before in a few other 1940s and 1970s patterns and I really like the whole idea of it – a one-piece garment that can be worn with a blouse underneath like a jumper or still work being worn alone as a dress. The famous actress Gene Tierney wears a very similarly styled jumper-dress, in a lovely light blue sans blouse underneath, in the 1945 movie “Leave Her to Heaven”. The banded armscye (as this kind of shoulder extension that looks like a sleeve is called) was stiff and sticking out on its own on Gene Tierney, and I used heavy interfacing to copy that appearance. However I have found an extant jumper-dress in rayon crepe that has a limp, unstructured banded armscye and it is amazing how one small detail as the weight of interfacing can change the whole “look”. I have even seen a banded armscye which is highly decorated on this fancy 1940’s blouse, or one used upside down in this 1930’s evening gown. The more you look at fashion from the past, the more you see the variety our modern RTW fashions are missing.
The pattern for a banded armscye has the general shape of an almond because it is folded in half to be a double layer self-facing piece. However, this “mock sleeve’’ needs to have a much lower dip, meaning the side seam is closed at a much lower point than regular garments with a true set-in sleeve. There is a triangular insert piece that can be added to the bottom point of the armscye where it ends at the side seam, meant for when this is worn alone as a dress. Of course, for this to be that versatile it would not be made from a wool but out of a gabardine, linen, or rayon of some sort, or something else multi-season with some body because I don’t like the ‘limp’ look of that extant dress I mentioned above. You have to just go all the way for some styles like this – to carry off powerful fashion is obviously being committed to a style that is every bit as strong as you are…or want to be! Crawford often said that she never went out anywhere unless she looked like “Joan Crawford the movie star”, so I’m supposing that this powerful fashion of hers was like being vested in more than clothing. Clothing has been described as armor that makes us feel whole or keeps us safe from what brings us down.
The design was deceptively simple, really. It wasn’t much harder than a shirt with a skirt attached, but it was the tailoring and details that I spend most of my time on to make this. The layout required a large amount of brain power to have the stripes match as impeccably as an Adrian inspired garment could become. I must say I was impressed at how well this pattern fit on me and came together, as some 1940s Simplicity patterns can be not that great, so the design deserves credit for my success – and I am quite pleased with this! I love how the pin striping miters in at the seams, and even ended up matching so well where the darts meet the skirt at the waist. I even somehow got the collar to match! To highlight the design and lay around with the striping, I had the banded armscye be horizontal while the rest of the dress was generally vertical. Adrian was a fan of a geometric approach to clothing.
Making all those buttonholes down the front and matching the buttons in place is and will always be such an exhausting thing to do for me, but every time I see such a garment finished it becomes so worth it in the end. This garment is especially the case because I used an intact card of vintage buttons, which I was so excited yet reluctant to use. It’s not that I want to just stash such treasures, or just hold onto them because they do not serve their intended purpose or get to shine just sitting in my collection! It’s just somehow harder to incorporate an old notion into my modern vintage when I feel that I have to separate it from its lovely, dramatic, pristine display placement on a perfect condition button card. Such notions like this remind me of how upscale and respected home sewing used to be, besides the fact that the quality of our modern notions have dramatically gone downhill! The buttons match so well with the wool in color, but it seems to me that their complex face makes them a subtle but still noticeable detail.
I am quite proud of the statement 40’s hairstyle I pulled off with this outfit! Joan Crawford seemed to wear her hair high up above her forehead on top her head frequently circa 1944 (see here and here), as did her fellow actresses Rosalind Russell and Paulette Goddard to name a few. Their hair is similar but seems to be more of a comb over than an under roll like mine, making it closer to a Dorothy Gray style. Realistically, I am not an actress and I needed a hairstyle to stay in place all day! With a lot of hairspray and pins, it did stay! Beseme brand “Red Velvet” lipstick completes the vintage look.
So – do you think you will try the over-emphasized shoulder look for yourself? Do you love it the way I do? Say yes to the shoulder pad! Knit fabrics nowadays have people so used to a close body fit, but extra fabric and shoulder pads to structure the body can and does have its benefits if your body shape is something waist and below you’re self-conscious about. 1950s hip exaggeration works the other way around, making your waist and above seem smaller. I’ll stop there. All I’ll say is that’s the not-so-advertised benefit of vintage – you can choose an era or styles that work well to compliment your body! What do you like yourself most wearing? Are you on the camp of Bette Davis or on Joan Crawford when it comes to the subject of their long-lasting feud? (I’m neutral on that feud, BTW!)